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Sabtu, 11 Februari 2012

Export Sales Contract

1.   Apa definisi export sales contract atau kontrak dagang ekspor itu?
Dari uraian diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa yang disebut export sales contract adalh kesepakatan antara eksportir dan importir untuk melakukan perdagangan barang sesuai persyaratan yang disepakati bersama dan masing-masingt pihak mengikat diri untuk melakukan semua kewajiban yang ditimbulkannya. Pihak yang ingkar janji akan dikenai sangsi dengan membayar ganti rugi kepada pihak yang dirugikan.


Dengan demikian export sales contract sebagai suatu perikatan antara pihak-pihak yang terikat harus memenuhi tiga landasan untama suatu perjanjian, yaitu:
a.       Azas konsensus: adanya kesepakatan antara kedua belah pihak secara sukarela.
b.      Azas obligator: mengikat kedua belah pihak untuk menjalankan semua hak dan kewajiban masing-masing.
c.       Azas penalti: bersedia memberikan ganti rugi kepada pihak lain jika tidak dapat memenuhi janji dalam menjalankan kewajiban.

2.   Hukum negara mana yang berlaku bila terjadi sengketa?
Masing-masing pihak sebenarnya bebas menentukan hukum negara mana yang akan diapakai untuk setiap kontrak. Bpleh memakai hukum yang berlaku dinegara eksportir, boleh pula memakai hukum yang berlaku di negara importir. Tetapi sering sekali kontrak tubduk pada hukum arbitrasi internasional. Karena itu dalam persyaratan kontrak dengan ekspor harus disebutkan dengan tegas mengenai ketentuan hukum ini.

Namun demikian, karena tujuan melakukan bisnis bukan untuk mencari perkara atau mencarai kemenangan dalam berperkara, melainkan membina saling percaya untuk mendapatkan laba, maka dapat ditempuh tahap, sbb:
a.       Tahap pertama melakukan musyawarah antara pihak eksportir dengan pihak importir yang disebut amicable solution.
b.      Bila cara pertama tidak berhasil barulah ditempuh cara arbitrasi (perwasitan) atau melalui swidang pengadilan dinegara yang ditentukan dalam kontrak dagang ekspor.

3.   Mengapa export sales contrak sebaiknya tertulis?
Kedatipun kontrak dagang ekspor dapat dilakukan secara lisan namun karena eksportir dan importir keduanya berdomisili di negara yang berbeda yang mempunyai hukum yang berbeda pula, dan untukn menghindari salah pengertian akibat bahasa yang berbeda, maka sebaiknya hak dan kewajiban masing-masing pihak dirumuskan dalam bentuk tertulis yang kelak dapat dijadikan bukti bila terjadi perbuatan ingkar janji berakibat sengketa di pengadilan.

4.   Bagaimana posisi export sales contract dalam perdagangan internasional?
Perlu diketahui bahwa perdagangan ekspor impor juga bisa disebut perdagangan dikumen, sebabnya karena seluruh kegiatan transaksi diaktualisasikan dalam bentuk dokumen. Barng ditawarkan dalam bentuk dokumen yang disebut ordersheet , barang dikirimkan dengan kapal, dan sebagai bukti pengiriman dikeluarkan dokumen yang disebut Bill of Lading, dan seterusnya.

Diantara semu jenis dokumen ini, ekspor sales contract menempati posisi sebagai dokumen induk dari semua dokumen perdagangan internasioanl. Semua persoalan dan semua dokumen lain akan merunjuk pada export sales contract ini.


5.   Bagaimana bentuk Export Sales Contract?
      Bentuk dan contoh Export sales contrak adalah, sbb:

SALES CONTRACT NO. 001/EXP/……..

DAIMEN KABUSHIKI KHAISA

15, Chioda-ku
TOKYO-JAPAN
(Nama dan alamat buyer)
PT. KERAJINAN KAYU INDONESIA
JL. Pahlawan No. 10
JEPARA-INDONESIA
(NAMA DAN ALAMAT SELLER)
The seller cinfirms having concluded this contract with the buyer covering the undermentioned merchandise on the terms and the conditions stated here under ang on the reverse. The buyer is hereby requested to sign and return the original attached here to, and if any discrepancy found on the buyer, the seller should be informed immediately by cable.
No.
Article and description
Quantity
Unit price ($)
Total Price ($)
1.
Wooden Car
100 pcs
5
500
2.
Woden Bird
100 pcs
5
500
3.
Wooden Pitcher
100pcs
10
1.000
Total FOB ………….
$ 2.000
Price           FOB…..                            : $ 2.000
                    Insurance WA                    : $      40
                    Freight to Yokohama         : $    160
                    CIF Yokohama                  : $ 2.200
                    (Incoterm – 2000)
Packing:
Items: each car packed in corrugate kraft box, 10 kraft boxes packed in wooden case.
Items: each car packed in corrugate kraft box, 10 kraft boxes packed in wooden case.
Items: one set consisting of 2 (two) pieces of pitcher, packed in a wooden case, 5 (five) wooden
           case packed in a large and strong wooden crate.
1. Shipment
            Shipment date: not later than December 21,……..
            Partian shipment: PROHIBITED
            Transhipment: PROHIBITED
            Destination: YOKOHAMA – JAPAN
            Shipping Marks: DKK
                                   ORDER NO…….
                                   L/C No…………
                                           Yokohama – Japan
2. Payment:  By opening an irrevocable Letter of Credit for the seller’s account through BANK BUKOPIN – Jepara Branch at the lates on December 15,……..
3. special condition: The following documents should be rendered by seller in triplicate plus 3 (three) copy of them which should be airmailed to the buyer:
1.           Full set clean on board Bill of Lading
2.           Signed commercial INVOICE
3.           Inspectetion certificate issued by Sucopindo-Indonesia.
4.      Certificate of Origin Issued by the Indonesia Ministry of Trade & Industry.
5.      Other conditions: Shipment order than in container is not allowed
6.      References : Your ref. 039/Ind/…….
7.      Ours Ref. 01/Exp/IX/…….


Confirmed by


Buyer
Place & Date
Tokyo, October 15, ………….
Confirmed by


Seller
Place & Date
Jepara, October 15, ………….
Please turn over leaf.



GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS
(Sale’s Contract)


SHIPMENT
:
Date of Bill of Lading shall be accepted  as a conclusive date of shipment………….(  ) days grace in shipping shall be allowed. Partial shipment and/or transhipment shall be permited unless otherwise in contract. The seller shall no be responsible for any delay of shipment, should the buyer fall to provide timely the Letter of Credit in conformity with the contract or in case the steamer designated by the buyer deferred beyond the prearranged date of shipment.
FORCE MAJEUR
:
Should shipment and/or delivery of all part the merchandise by prevented or delayed by prohibition of exportation, suspension of issuence of export lesense or other government restrictions , act of god, war, blockade, revulution, insurrection, mobilisazion, strickes, lock out, civilcomotion, riots, plague, or other epidemis, destruction of the goods by fire, typhoon, flood or due to  any other couse or couses beyond the control of the seller, the contract shall be void to the extent of such pertion, the shipment or delivery of which is still to prevented.
INSPECTION
:
The inspection of quality shall be done according to the export regulatuion of the seller government and/or by the supplier which shall be considered as final. Should any specific inspector be designated by the buyer all additional charges thereby incurred shall be borne by the buyer and shall be added to the Invoice amount, for which the Letter of Credit should stipulated accordingly.
QUANTITY
:
Quantity setforth in the contract is subject to a variation of the…..(  ) percent more or less.
PACKING & MARKING
:
Packing and marking shall be at seller’s option. Incase special instruction are necessray the same should be intimated to the seller in time so as to enable the seller’s to comply with.
INSURANCE & FREIGHT
:
Insurance shall be effected by the seller at…….present or at the Invoice amount in the case or CIF or C&I contract. War risk and/or and other clausesw additional to those specified  in the contract shall be covered only at the specifict request to the buyer and at the buyer’s expence. Ani unforessent increase in freight and/or insurance premium subsequent to the conclucion of the contract shall be the buyer’s account.
PAYMENT
:
Irrevocable and Confirmed Letter of Credit, without resourse, available againts the seller’s sight draft shall be establish throught a prime bank satisfactory to the seller within……(   ) days after the date of the contract and be kept valid at last …..(   ) days after the mont of shipment. The amount of such letter of credit shall be sufficient to cover the contract amount and additional charges and/or expense to be born by the buyer. Should the buyer fall to provide such letter of credit in accordance with the contract, reselling the contracted goods for the buyer’s account and or holding the goods for the buyer’s account and risk.
CLAIM
:
Any claim by the buyer arising under the contract shall be made by the cable within….. (days) after arrival of the merchandise an the destination specified in the Bilol of Lading. Ani dispute or difference arrising out or related to this contract, or the breach there of shall be settled amicable as far as possible by direct negotiation, but in case of failure the matter shall be refered  to and settled by arbitration that pointed by the both party. The award shall be final and binding on the both parties. 




INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROCESS

(Proses Perdagangan Internasinal)
  1. SALES CONTRACT PROCESS
  2. LETTER OF CREDIT
  3. CARGO SHIPMENT
  4. SHIPPING DOCUMENTS
NEGOTIATION PROCESS

1 komentar:

  1. Potingannya sangat membantu
    Tks
    Mulyana-Bandung

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